United  Nations  UniversalDeclaration  of

HumanRights  1948

 

 

 

 

UnitedNations  (UN)

 

 

 



 Copyright©1949UnitedNations(UN)

 

 

 


 

 

 

UniversalDeclarationofHuman  Rights                                                          1

 

 

United  Nations                                                                                                   2

 

Note

 

Adopted  and  proclaimedbyGeneralAssembly  resolution  217A(III)of10December

1948

OnDecember10,1948theGeneralAssembly  oftheUnitedNations  adoptedandpro- claimed  the  Universal  DeclarationofHuman  Rights  the  fulltextofwhichappearsin thefollowingpages.FollowingthishistoricacttheAssembly  called  upon  allMember countriestopublicize  thetextoftheDeclarationand  “tocauseittobedisseminated, displayed,readandexpoundedprincipallyinschoolsandothereducationalinstitutions, withoutdistinctionbasedonthepoliticalstatusofcountries orterritories.

 

 

Preamble                                                                                                                                            3

 

Whereasrecognition  oftheinherent  dignityand  oftheequal  and  inalienablerightsof       4 all membersof thehuman  familyisthefoundationof freedom,justiceandpeacein the world,

 

Whereasdisregardand  contemptforhuman  rights  have  resultedinbarbarousacts              5 whichhave  outragedthe  conscienceofmankind,  and  the  adventofaworldinwhich human  beingsshall  enjoy  freedom  ofspeechand  beliefand  freedom  fromfear  and wanthas  beenproclaimedasthehighestaspirationofthecommonpeople.

 

Whereasitisessential,ifmanisnottobecompelledtohave  recourse,asalastresort,              6

torebellionagainsttyrannyand  oppression,thathuman  rightsshould  beprotectedby theruleoflaw,

 

Whereasitisessentialtopromote  thedevelopmentoffriendlyrelationsbetweenna-              7

tions,

 

Whereasthe  peoplesofthe  UnitedNations  have  inthe  Charter  reaffirmed  theirfaith        8 infundamentalhuman  rights,inthedignityand  worthofthehuman  personand  inthe equal  rightsofmen  and  women  and  have  determinedtopromote  social  progressand better  standardsoflifeinlargerfreedom,

 

WhereasMemberStateshavepledgedthemselvestoachieve,inco-operationwiththe               9

UnitedNations,  thepromotion  ofuniversal  respectforandobservanceofhuman  rights andfundamentalfreedoms,

 

Whereas acommonunderstandingoftheserightsandfreedomsisofthegreatestim-              10

portanceforthefullrealization  ofthispledge,

 

Now,ThereforeTHEGENERALASSEMBLYproclaimsTHISUNIVERSALDECLARA-    11

TIONOFHUMANRIGHTSasacommonstandardofachievementforallpeoplesand


 

 

 

allnations,totheendthateveryindividualandeveryorganofsociety,  keepingthisDec- laration  constantlyinmind,shallstrivebyteachingand  educationtopromote  respect fortheserightsandfreedomsandbyprogressivemeasures,nationalandinternational, tosecuretheiruniversal  and  effective  recognition  and  observance,both  among  the peoplesofMemberStatesthemselvesandamong  thepeoplesofterritoriesundertheir jurisdiction.

 

 

Article1                                                                                                                                             12

 

Allhuman  beingsare  born  free  and  equal  indignityand  rights.Theyare  endowed        13 withreasonand  conscienceand  should  act  towardsone  anotherinaspiritofbroth- erhood.

 

 

Article2                                                                                                                                             14

 

Everyoneisentitled  toalltherightsand  freedomsset  forthinthisDeclaration,without         15 distinctionofanykind,such  asrace,  colour,  sex,  language,religion,politicalorother opinion,  national  orsocial  origin,property,  birthorother  status.  Furthermore,nodis- tinctionshallbemadeonthebasisofthepolitical,jurisdictionalorinternationalstatus

ofthecountryorterritorytowhichapersonbelongs,whetheritbeindependent,trust, non-self-governingorunder  anyotherlimitationofsovereignty.

 

 

Article3                                                                                                                                             16

 

Everyonehas  therighttolife,libertyandsecurity  ofperson.                                                      17

 

 

Article4                                                                                                                                             18

 

Noone  shallbeheldinslavery  orservitude;slavery  and  theslave  trade  shallbepro-       19

hibitedinalltheirforms.

 

 

Article5                                                                                                                                             20

 

Noone  shall  be  subjectedtotorture  ortocruel,  inhumanordegradingtreatmentor          21

punishment.

 

 

Article6                                                                                                                                             22

 

Everyonehas  therighttorecognition  everywhereasapersonbefore  thelaw.                          23


 

 

 

Article7                                                                                                                                             24

 

Allareequal  before  thelawandareentitledwithoutanydiscrimination  toequal  protec-     25

tionofthelaw.Allareentitledtoequal  protection  againstanydiscrimination  inviolation ofthisDeclarationandagainstanyincitement  tosuch  discrimination.

 

 

Article8                                                                                                                                             26

 

Everyonehas  therighttoaneffective  remedy  bythecompetentnational  tribunals  for       27

acts  violatingthefundamentalrightsgrantedhimbytheconstitution  orbylaw.

 

 

Article9                                                                                                                                             28

 

Nooneshallbesubjectedtoarbitraryarrest,detentionorexile.                                                 29

 

 

Article10                                                                                                                                           30

 

Everyoneisentitled  infullequalitytoafairand  publichearing  byanindependentand        31 impartialtribunal,inthedeterminationofhisrightsand  obligationsand  ofanycriminal chargeagainsthim.

 

 

Article11                                                                                                                                           32

 

1.Everyonechargedwithapenal  offence  has  therighttobepresumedinnocentuntil           33 proved  guiltyaccordingtolawinapublictrialatwhichhehas  had  alltheguarantees necessaryforhisdefence.

 

2.  Noone  shallbeheldguiltyofanypenal  offence  onaccountofanyactoromission      34 whichdidnotconstituteapenal  offence,  under  national  orinternationallaw,atthetime whenitwascommitted.Norshallaheavier penalty  beimposed thantheonethatwas applicableatthetimethepenal  offence  wascommitted.

 

 

Article12                                                                                                                                           35

 

Noone  shall  be  subjectedtoarbitrary  interferencewithhisprivacy,  family,home  or        36 correspondence,nor  toattacksupon  his  honour  and  reputation.  Everyonehas  the righttotheprotection  ofthelawagainstsuch  interference orattacks.

 

 

Article13                                                                                                                                           37

 

1.Everyonehas  therighttofreedom  of movementandresidencewithinthebordersof          38

eachstate.

 

2.  Everyonehas  therighttoleave  anycountry,  includinghisown,and  toreturntohis      39

country.


 

 

 

Article14                                                                                                                                           40

 

1.Everyonehas  therighttoseekandtoenjoyinothercountriesasylum  frompersecu-         41

tion.

 

2.  Thisrightmay  notbe  invoked  inthe  caseofprosecutionsgenuinelyarising  from          42 non-political  crimes  orfromacts  contrary  tothepurposesand  principles  oftheUnited Nations.

 

 

Article15                                                                                                                                           43

 

1.Everyonehas  therighttoanationality.                                                                                    44

 

2.Noone  shallbearbitrarilydeprivedofhisnationalitynordeniedtherighttochange         45

hisnationality.

 

 

Article16                                                                                                                                           46

 

1.Menandwomen  offullage,  withoutanylimitationduetorace,  nationalityorreligion,     47 have  the  righttomarryand  tofoundafamily.  Theyare  entitled  toequal  rightsasto marriage, duringmarriage andatitsdissolution.

 

2.  Marriage  shall  be  enteredintoonlywiththe  free  and  fullconsentofthe  intending        48

spouses.

 

3.  The  familyisthe  natural  and  fundamentalgroup  unitofsociety  and  isentitled  to     49

protection  bysociety  andtheState.

 

 

Article17                                                                                                                                           50

 

1.   Everyonehas  the  righttoownproperty  alone  aswellasinassociationwithoth-         51

ers.

 

2.Nooneshallbearbitrarilydeprivedofhisproperty.                                                               52

 

 

Article18                                                                                                                                           53

 

Everyonehastherighttofreedomofthought,conscienceandreligion;thisrightincludes        54 freedom  tochangehisreligionorbelief,andfreedom,eitheraloneorincommunitywith othersand  inpublicorprivate,  tomanifesthisreligionorbeliefinteaching,practice, worshipandobservance.

 

 

Article19                                                                                                                                           55

 

Everyonehastherighttofreedomofopinionandexpression;thisrightincludesfreedom       56 toholdopinions  withoutinterferenceand  toseek,receiveand  impartinformation  and ideasthrough  anymedia  andregardlessoffrontiers.


 

 

 

Article20                                                                                                                                           57

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.Everyonehas  therighttofreedom  ofpeacefulassemblyandassociation.

 

 

58

2.Noonemaybecompelledtobelong  toanassociation.

 

 

59

 

rticle21

 

 

 

60

 

1.   Everyonehas  the  righttotake  part  inthe  governmentofhis  country, through  freelychosenrepresentatives.

 

directlyor

 

61

2.Everyonehas  therightofequal  accesstopublicserviceinhiscountry.

 

 

62

 

A

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.Thewillofthepeopleshallbethebasisoftheauthorityofgovernment;thiswillshall            63 beexpressedinperiodicand  genuineelectionswhichshallbebyuniversal  and  equal suffrageandshallbeheldbysecretvoteorbyequivalentfreevotingprocedures.

 

 

Article22                                                                                                                                           64

 

Everyone,asamemberofsociety,  has  the  righttosocial  security  and  isentitled  to         65 realization,through  national  effortand  internationalco-operationand  inaccordance withtheorganizationandresourcesofeachState,oftheeconomic,socialandcultural rightsindispensableforhisdignityandthefreedevelopment ofhispersonality.

 

 

Article23                                                                                                                                           66

 

1.Everyonehas  therighttowork,tofreechoice  ofemployment,tojustandfavourable        67

conditions  ofworkandtoprotection  againstunemployment.

 

2.Everyone,withoutanydiscrimination,hastherighttoequalpayforequalwork.                 68

 

3.   Everyonewhoworks  has  the  righttojustand  favourableremunerationensuring           69 forhimselfand  hisfamilyanexistenceworthyofhuman  dignity,and  supplemented,if necessary,byothermeansofsocialprotection.

 

4.   Everyonehas  the  righttoformand  tojointrade  unions  forthe  protection  ofhis     70

interests.

 

 

Article24                                                                                                                                           71

 

Everyonehas  the  righttorest  and  leisure,  including  reasonablelimitationofworking         72

hours  andperiodicholidays  withpay.

 

 

Article25                                                                                                                                           73

 

1.   Everyonehas  the  righttoa  standardoflivingadequateforthe  health  and  well-         74


 

 

 

being  ofhimselfand  ofhisfamily,includingfood,clothing,  housingand  medical  care andnecessarysocialservices,andtherighttosecurity  intheevent  ofunemployment, sickness,disability,  widowhood,  oldage  orother  lackoflivelihoodincircumstances beyondhiscontrol.

 

2.Motherhoodand  childhood  areentitledtospecialcare  and  assistance.Allchildren,    75

whether borninoroutofwedlock,shallenjoythesamesocialprotection.

 

 

Article26                                                                                                                                           76

 

1.Everyonehas  therighttoeducation.Educationshallbefree,atleast  in theelemen-   77

taryand  fundamentalstages.  Elementaryeducationshall  be  compulsory.  Technical and  professionaleducationshall  be  madegenerally  available  and  higher  education shallbeequallyaccessibletoallonthebasisofmerit.

 

2.  Educationshall  be  directedtothe  fulldevelopmentofthe  human  personalityand          78 tothe  strengtheningofrespectforhuman  rightsand  fundamentalfreedoms.  Itshall promote  understanding,toleranceand  friendship  among  allnations,racialorreligious groups,and  shall  further  the  activities  ofthe  United  Nations  forthe  maintenanceof peace.

 

3.Parentshave  apriorrighttochoosethekindof educationthatshallbegiventotheir    79

children.

 

 

Article27                                                                                                                                           80

 

1.  Everyonehas  therightfreelytoparticipateintheculturallifeofthecommunity,  to   81

enjoytheartsandtoshareinscientificadvancementanditsbenefits.

 

2.Everyonehas  therighttotheprotection  ofthemoralandmaterial  interestsresulting    82

fromanyscientific,literaryorartisticproductionofwhichheistheauthor.

 

 

Article28                                                                                                                                           83

 

Everyoneisentitledtoasocialandinternationalorderinwhichtherightsandfreedoms   84

setforthinthisDeclarationcanbefullyrealized.

 

 

Article29                                                                                                                                           85

 

1.Everyonehas  duties  tothecommunity  inwhichalone  thefreeandfulldevelopment   86

ofhispersonalityispossible.

 

2.  Intheexerciseofhisrightsand  freedoms,everyoneshallbesubjectonlytosuch    87

limitationsasaredeterminedbylawsolelyforthepurposeofsecuringduerecognition andrespectfor therightsandfreedomsofothersandofmeetingthejustrequirements ofmorality,publicorderandthegeneralwelfareinademocraticsociety.


 

 

 

3.  Theserightsand  freedomsmayinnocasebeexercisedcontrary  tothepurposes            88

andprinciples  oftheUnitedNations.

 

 

Article30                                                                                                                                           89

 

NothinginthisDeclarationmaybeinterpretedasimplyingforanyState,grouporperson           90

anyrighttoengageinanyactivityortoperformanyactaimed  atthedestructionofany oftherightsandfreedomssetforthherein